ABOUT NOGHAY PEOPLE
The Noghays have migrated to different regions because of several factors. Today they mostly live in the Karachay-Cherkessia Republic of Russia as well as in Stavropol Krai and in Dagestan. In addition, there are also Noghays in Romania, Crimea and Turkey.
It is reported that the name Noghay is derived from Noghay Khan, great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan. Noghay Khan functioned as a de facto ruler of the Golden Horde state for nearly forty years in the thirteenth century. Although he was the great-great-grandson of Genghis Khan, he was not allowed to take the throne due to the fact that his mother was a concubine. However, he was called “khan” by leading dignitaries of the period. Noghay Khan played a significant role in administration and followed his own rules, making him de facto ruler. He was killed in war in 1299. Following his death those beys attached to Noghay Khan began to be called Noghay and following the disintegration of the Golden Horde state these beys united under the name Noghay Horde.
Noghays first dominated in the steppes between the Volga river and the Ural mountains. From the fifteenth century to the sixteenth century they became dominant power in a wide area. However, the expansion led to decline and eventually, the Noghay Horde divided into three groups. Then, they began to live in other states.
As a result of pressure of Russians their major migration began from the eighteenth century. They came Istanbul and other port cities of the Black Sea region. Those stayed in Russia as well as other Muslim people in the region faced heavy tax burdens, making them gradually poor. These regions became Russian due to the settlement policies. Following the Crimean war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire the migration of Noghays to Anatolia accelerated.
Noghays in Turkey
Noghays began their immigration from Caucasia during the 18th century to Anatolia, including such cities as Adana, Bursa, Eskişehir and İstanbul and it continued in the 19th century. Today they mostly live in Konya, Ankara, Eskişehir, Afyon, Adana and around Tuz Gölü (the Salt Lake).
At the initial period Noghays were located by the Ottoman officials in villages with no more than thirty families. Although it was officially promised that Noghay families would be given oxen and wheat, it was not realized due to bad economical conditions. Due to their disharmony with locals, they migrated to the villages where Noghays were living.
Noghays in Turkey try to preserve their culture and language from the influences of the dominant culture. To this end they have established many distinct foundations. They still follow their cultural norms and try to use their native language and celebrate Sabantoy each year. In addition, they come together in different villages each year to perform the tradition of the pray for rain.
Villages covered in the field study
Kırkkuyu village: The village was founded by Noghays who migrated to the region (Çöpler and the Paşa mountain) during and following the Crimean war of 1853‐1856. In the 1890s some Noghays from Gölderen village of Semirik city in Petersgie province, Russia.Total population 310; 143 male, 167 female.
Boğazören village: Its former name is Köstengil. The village was founded by Noghays who migrated to the region during the 1850s and 1860s. The founder and first settlers were Temirbek Ata and his followes. Total population 135; 73 male, 62 female.
Ağılbaşı village: The village was founded by Noghays who migrated in 1860s from Rabat Ay. It was called Mandıra until 1960 when it was renamed Ağılbaşı. Total population 178; 83 erkek, 95 kadın.
Seyitahmetli village: It is also called as Seydametli. According to narrations two brothers, Seyit and Ahmet, came there sometime between 1884 and 1887 and established it due to its abundant water sources. Total population of the village, which was founded by Sultan Abdülhamit’s edict, is 24. Of them, 11 are male, and 13 female.
Akin village: It is also called as Agin. It is known that the village was founded by three Noghay families migrated from Caucasia in the 1860s. some informants reported the founders as follows: Abdullah, Osman and Hacı Yunus. Total population 231; 106 male, 125 female.
Şekerköy village: Noghays call it as Şeker. The village was founded by Noghays migrated to the region in 1861. Total population 186; 83 male, 103 female.
Doğankaya village: Its former name was Qarapqur, and it is also called Karakaya or Abdulgedigi. The village was established by Noghay people migrated to the region following the Crimean war of 1853-1856. In the Ottoman archives it is called Abdülgedik and was founded in 1860. The inhabitants are Noghay people who were located in nearby area of the Kulu Paşa mountain. Total population 94; 45 male, 49 female.
Nogaylar village: The village was founded by Noghay people either from Kuban or Crimea in 1850. Today the dominant inhabitants are nomads and there are only ten Noghay families in the village. It was called Muhacirîn-i Atîk until 1960 when it was renamed Nogaylar (Noghays) village based on the request of inhabitants. As of 2012 total population was 487; 239 male 248 female.
Büyükmangıt village: It was founded by the Mangıt dynasty descendants of Emir Alim Khan, one of the rulers of the Emirate of Bukhara. Then Balkan emigrants and nomads also settled in the village. In the 19th century Noghay people from Caucasia were located there. As of 2012 total population was 3064.
Küçükmangıt village: The village is 5 km. north from Ceyhan. As of 2006 total population was 375. The founders were people belonging to the Mangıt tribe from Turkistan and today there are also Kurdish inhabitants.
Tokdamış village: The village was established by Noghay people from Toktamış tribe which came from Crimea in 1860. As of 2006 total population was 1135. There are families from Turkoman- Emigrant-nomad origins.
Orhaniye Village: The village is historically related to Bodrum village which is on 1 km west. It is thought that the village was established by Turkoman belonging to the Avşar tribe. Noghay people living in Karahisar-ı Sahib (Yenibelkavak), Muhacir Belkavak, Armutlu and non-exist Nevruzul began to settle there in 1860. In 2011 the population was 183.